London Has Enough Attractions to Keep You Busy For 16 Years

Have you ever visited a city and thought; 3/5/7 days is not enough?

Leaflets line the lobbies of hotels the world over advertising the wide range of activities you can sign up for, from elephant trekking in South East Asia to bungee jumps in New Zealand.

Often many of us will pick new destinations for holidays based on the activities on offer.

Which cities will keep you most busy based on your interests?

Methodology

I used Euromonitor’s Top 100 City Destinations Ranking (tourist arrivals) to identify the top 100 cities for tourism in 2015.

Using this list of 100, I then turned to Tripadvisor to identify number of activity options in each city. Tripadvisor splits activities into the following 20 categories:

  • Sights and landmarks
  • Transportation
  • Nature and parks
  • Shopping
  • Water and amusement parks
  • Tours
  • Zoos and aquariums
  • Outdoor activities
  • Museums
  • Food and drink
  • Fun and games
  • Nightlife
  • Boat tours and water sports
  • Casinos and gambling
  • Concerts and shows
  • Spas and wellness
  • Classes and workshops
  • Traveller resources
  • Events
  • Day trips

Results

Top cities (all activities)

Activities-Count-Map

Interactive map.

Rank total activities City & Country Activities Total
1 London, UK 5809
2 Tokyo, Japan 5021
3 Moscow, Russia 4375
4 New York City, US 4342
5 Rome, Italy 4159
6 Paris, France 3732
7 Prague, Czech Republic 3239
8 Barcelona, Spain 3203
9 St Petersburg, Russia 3158
10 Istanbul, Turkey 2990

Full list.

London has the most activities for visitors 5809, nightlife activities account for 1280 of the total. That is enough to keep you busy for almost 16 years (5809 / 365).

Europe is one of the best regions to visit for spread of activities, 8 of the top 10 cities in the top 10 are all European.

Top cities (nightlife)

Nightlife-Count-Map

Interactive map.

Rank nightlife activities City & Country Nightlife total
1 London, UK 1280
2 Madrid, Spain 913
3 New York City, US 857
4 Barcelona, Spain 776
5 Prague, Czech Republic 648
6 Berlin, Germany 600
7 Rome, Italy 565
8 Istanbul, Turkey 440
9 Paris, France 429
10 Milan, Italy 376

Full list.

9 of the top 10 cities for nightlife attractions are all European with London leading the way with 1280 options — over 300 more than 2nd placed Madrid.

Top cities (shopping)

Shopping-Count-Map

Interactive map.

Rank shopping activities City & Country Shopping
1 New York City, US 796
2 London, UK 718
3 Paris, France 646
4 Tokyo, Japan 645
5 Istanbul, Turkey 530
6 Shanghai, China 506
7 Bangkok, Thailand 457
8 Rome, Italy 427
9 Prague, Czech Republic 386
10 Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China 386

Full list.

Unsurprisingly the “fashion capitals”, New York (769), London (718), Paris (646) have the most shopping options available to visitors.

Top cities (museums)

museums-activities-count

Interactive map.

Rank museums attractions City & Country Museums
1 Moscow, Russia 594
2 St Petersburg, Russia 430
3 Tokyo, Japan 390
4 Seoul, South Korea 330
5 Prague, Czech Republic 317
6 London, UK 314
7 Beijing, China 284
8 Istanbul, Turkey 283
9 New York City, US 266
10 Shanghai, China 261

Full list.

Russia, a country with a very rich history has a large number of museums compared to other major cities. Moscow (594) and St Petersburg (430) are placed 1st and 2nd for count of museums.

2 cities in Euromonitor’s Top 100 list have no museums: Halong (Vietnam) and Palau Pinang (Malaysia).

Top cities (food & drink)

food-activities-count

Interactive map.

Food & drink rank City & Country Food & Drink
1 Rome, Italy 211
2 Hanoi, Vietnam 188
3 London, UK 170
4 Barcelona, Spain 166
5 Paris, France 159
6 Florence, Italy 134
7 Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam 112
8 Tokyo, Japan 106
9 Prague, Czech Republic 106
10 Madrid, Spain 102

Full list.

Rome tops the list for Food & Drink options. Parisians will be very disappointed to see themselves in 4th place, behind London in 3rd.

Top cities (nature & parks)

parks-activities-count

Interactive map.

Nature & park ranks City & Country Nature & Parks
1 Tokyo, Japan 378
2 Beijing, China 273
3 Moscow, Russia 187
4 London, UK 179
5 Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China 141
6 St Petersburg, Russia 133
7 Taipei, Taiwan 126
8 Shanghai, China 125
9 New York City, US 109
10 Sydney, Australia 106

Full list.

The greenest city in the world is highly debatable (how do you measure “green”?). Tripadvisor’s count does not account for area of green space, rather the number of distinct green spaces and parks. Tokyo, a city with a very dense population, does not have many very large parks but seemingly lots of very small green spaces.

Top cities (landmarks)

sights-activities-count

Interactive map.

Rank sights activities City & Country Sights & Landmarks
1 Tokyo, Japan 1851
2 Moscow, Russia 1300
3 St Petersburg, Russia 1030
4 Rome, Italy 894
5 Kyoto, Japan 799
6 Beijing, China 757
7 London, UK 693
8 Osaka, Japan 614
9 Paris, France 505
10 Milan, Italy 451

Full list.

I was not going to include this category as Sights and Landmarks is a very broad categorisation. However I decided to include with an explanation. Older cities will likely have lots of historic landmarks, but this category has no distinction. Likewise, a “sight” can be very subjective. As such, I am not sure there is too much we can draw from this category.

Improvements

Tripadvisor’s count of activities offers a general overview of the most popular activities within a city. If you’re like me, you’ll browse Tripadvisor’s “Top 10” activities before visiting a new city. However, the activities listed by Tripadvisor is not exhaustive. Many activities, especially those of a very specialist nature, are likely to be excluded. If I could identify a better way to classify and count activities in each city the accuracy of the results could be improved.

tl;dr

London has the most activities for visitors 5809, nightlife activities account for 1280 of the total.

Get the Data

Get all the data used in this blog post on Google Sheets.

Tuvalu Welcomes Just 1000 Tourists Per Year. France, 83 Million

Modern day travel has become incredibly easy. Even comparing it to 15 years ago; more routes are available than ever before, travel times have reduced, and costs have typically dropped significantly.

The turn-of-phrase ‘small world‘ is now a common one (although its use may be in decline). In 2014, there were 1.133 billion international tourist arrivals worldwide, with a growth of 4.3% as compared to 1.087 billion in 2013.

Yet parts of the world are still inaccessible through your budget carrier — and some still unexplored. But where are they?

Methodology

Every year the UN World Tourism Organisation publishes a report titled “Tourism Highlights“. For this post I used the 2015 version (data reported is for 2013). The report contains tourism statistics for 217 countries, including inbound tourist arrivals and receipts. Using this data I was able to identify the countries that report the fewest tourists.

Analysis

UNWTO inbound tourists 2013

countries inbound tourists chart

Full map.

Did you know? The 3 countries that received the most tourists in 2013 were: 1. France (83.6 mil arrivals), 2. United States (69.9), and 3. Spain (60.6).

Full ranking.

UNWTO least touristed regions

Ave Tourists p/Destination by region

Download chart.

If you want to steer clear of tourist traps and other travellers your best bet would be a holiday somewhere in Africa… or Bangladesh.

UNWTO least touristed countries

Inbound Tourists 2013 Country (<100k Inbound Tourists)

Download chart.

-Rank (tourists) Destination Inbound Tourists 2013
19 Rep. Moldova 96000
18 Dominica 86000
17 Sierra Leone 81000
16 Timor-Leste 79000
15 St. Vincent & Gren. 72000
14 San Marino 71000
13 Anguilla 69000
12 Djibouti 63000
11 Liechtenstein 60000
10 Guinea 56000
9 Tonga 51000
8 Micronesia FSM 42000
7 Solomon Is 24000
6 American Samoa 20000
5 Montserrat 7000
4 Niue 7000
3 Kiribati 6000
2 Marshall Is 5000
1 Tuvalu 1000

Full list.

These 19 countries were all reported to receive less than 100k inbound tourists in 2013.

There were 91 countries in 2013 that received less than 1 million inbound tourists.

Did you know? The 3 countries that received the fewest tourists in 2013 were: 191. Kiribati (6000 arrivals), 192. Marshall Islands (5000), 193. Tuvalu (1000).

Improvements

This post was inspired by Gunnar Garfors, who in 2015 compiled a list of the least touristed countries from a wide array of sources beyond only the UNWTO.

His list of 25 countries is very similar, with some notable differences in the bottom 3 countries: 23. Tuvalu (1200 inbound tourists), 24. Somalia (400), 25. Nauru (160).

tl;dr

According to the UNWTO the 3 countries that have the lowest number of inbound tourists in 2014 were: 191. Kiribiti (6000 inbound tourists), 192. Marshall Islands (5000), 193. Tuvalu (1000)

Footnotes

  1. Data sources + data used in this post.

The Worlds Shortest Commercial Flight. 2 Minutes to Fly 3 Kilometres

If it’s Tuesday, it must be Wednesday.

The Time Zone system counts 12 hours in either direction from Greenwich and meets up more or less in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. This imaginary boundary is called the International Date Line and anywhere it meets, an extremely strange thing happens. Time jumps ahead 24 hours – an entire day. If you fly from China to the West Coast of the US, for example, the jump can be particularly tough on the body.

Flying long-haul can be very tough on your body. Timezone changes mixed with hours of sitting uncomfortably (unless you’re lucky to fly business class or above) is not something many look forward too.

Timezone changes can work both ways. When Concorde was in operation (1976 – 2003) flying from London to New York you could arrive, in terms of local time, before you left. A New York to London flight took only 3 hours 20 minutes (the fastest journey was 2 hours 52 minutes and 59 seconds!).

How bad does it get? What are the longest plane journeys?

Methodology

I collected data from Wikipedia about commercial aircraft ranges and both operational and retired commercial routes for comparison.

Analysis

Aircraft ranges

Top 10 max aircraft range

Download chart.

The biggest limitation to flying distance is aircraft — it takes a lot of fuel to keep a plane in the air.

The Boeing 777-200LR (the LR stands for Long Range) is the aircraft with the largest potential range, 17,395km (the circumference of the earth is 40,008km).

Did you know? The aircraft with the longest ranges are: 1. Boeing 777-200LR (17,395km), 2. Airbus A340-500 (16,670km), 3. Boeing 787-9 Dreamliner (15,750km).

Longest distance routes (by aircraft type)

10 Longest Flight distance by Aircraft

Download chart.

The longest route (distance) operated by a Turboprop aircraft is the Bombardier Dash 8 Q400 (1726 km / PD175).

All of the 10 longest flights are operated by jet powered aircraft. The longest route (distance) operated by a Jetliner aircraft is the Boeing 777-200LR (14,524km / QR 921). This is just under 3000km short of the aircrafts max operating range (17,395km).

Notably, flight SV 41 operated by an Boeing 777-300ER between Jeddah and LA takes about 16 hours 55 mins to cover 13,400km. However, flight UA 179 (San Francisco to Singapore) covers a longer distance (13,600km) but is 35 minutes shorter in duration (16 hours 20 mins) operated on a Boeing 787-9.

Longest distance (by active routes)

10 Longest distance flights (active routes)

Download chart.

Rank (dist.) From – To Flight number Distance km Scheduled duration Aircraft type
1 Auckland-Doha QR 921 14524 17:35:00 Boeing 777-200LR
2 Auckland-Dubai EK 449 14203 17:15:00 Airbus A380-799
3 Dallas/Fort Worth-Sydney QF 8 13804 16:55:00 Airbus A380-800
4 San Francisco-Singapore SQ 31 13593 16:55:00 Airbus A350
5 San Francisco-Singapore UA 179 13593 16:20:00 Boeing 787-9
6 Johannesburg-Atlanta DL 201 13582 16:40:00 Boeing 777-200LR
7 Abu Dhabi-Los Angeles EY 171 13502 16:30:00 Boeing 777-200LR
8 Dubai-International-Los Angeles EK 215 13420 16:35:00 Airbus A380-800
9 Jeddah-Los Angeles SV 41 13409 16:30:00 Boeing 777-300ER
10 Doha-Los Angeles QR 739 13367 16:25:00 Boeing 777-200LR
11 Dubai-Houston EK 211 13144 16:20:00 Airbus A380-800

Full ranking.

Did you know? The longest routes (distance) currently in operation are: 1. QR921 Auckland – Doha (14,524km / 17h35m / 777-200LR), 2. EK449 Auckland – Dubai (14,203km / 17h15m / A380-800), 3. QF8 Dallas – Sydney (13,804km / 16h55m / A380-800)

Longest distance (by discontinued routes)

10 Longest discontinued flights by distance

Download chart.

The longest journey (distance) ever operated was SQ21 Newark – Singapore (15,345km) and took 18h50m (ouch!). This route was flown by a A340-500 (max range 16,670km).

SQ37, LA – Singapore (14,114km) took 18h05m flown on an A340-500. This journey is almost an hour longer than QR921 Auckland – Doha (14,524km / 17h35m) currently flown on a 777-200LR. Both routes are about equal in distance and the direction of travel is the same. The time difference can be attributed to cruising speeds of each aircraft: 777-200LR = 1037km/h vs. A340-500 = 945 km/h — about 100 km/h slower.

Shortest distance (by active routes)

10 Shortest flights by distance

Download chart.

Rank (dist.) From To Flight Number Distance (km) Scheduled duration (min) Aircraft Type
10 Kos-Kalymnos A3 7036/7037 23 20 De Havilland Canada Dash 8
9 Karpathos-Kasos Island OA 34 22 5 De Havilland Canada Dash 8
8 Cayman Brac-Little Cayman KX 4421 22 10 DHC-6 Twin Otter Series 300
7 Papeete (Fa’a’ā)-Moorea VT 201 18 15 ATR 72
6 Saipan-Tinian FP 101 17.4 10 Piper PA-31 Navajo
5 Connemara-Inishmaan RE-XXX 16.8 6 Britten-Norman Islander
4 Hoʻolehua (Molokai Airport)-Kalaupapa LW 270/280/290 14.2 10 Cessna 208B Grand Caravan
3 Minami-Daito-Kita-Daito RAC835/RAC836 12 15 Bombardier Dash 8
2 Caye Chapel-Caye Caulker MW 2100 3.8 2 Cessna 208 Caravan
1 Westray-Papa Westray LOG312/LOG313 2.73 2 Britten-Norman Islander

Full ranking.

Anyone who has spent 17 hours on a plane knows how tough it can be on the body. That said, flights where you spend longer in the airport then in the air can be frustrating.

The shortest route flown by time and distance is between Westray and Papa Westray in Scotland. The distance is 2.73km and the flight takes just 2 minutes. It’s a hotly contested route for airlines. In 2013 a one-way ticket was priced at ÂŁ21 (a brief search did not uncover recent prices).

Interestingly, the 9th shortest flight by distance, Karpathos-Kasos Island (22km), takes just 5 minutes on the De Havilland Canada Dash 8.

Did you know? The shortest routes (distance) currently flown are: 3. Minami-Daito – Kita-Daito (12km / 15m), 2. Caye Chape – Caye Caulker (3.8km / 2m), 1. Westray and Papa Westray (2.73km / 2m).

Did you know? The shortest routes (time) currently flown are: 3. Karapathos – Kasos Island (22km / 5m), 2. Caye Chape – Caye Caulker (3.8 / 2m), 1. Westray and Papa Westray (2.73km / 2m).

Improvements

I would like to compare how the flight duration differences changed based on average cruising speed of different aircraft.

tl;dr

On 5 February 2017, Qatar Airways started nonstop flights between Doha and Auckland, making this flight the longest in the world. The flight covers 14,524 kilometres and is operated by Boeing 777-200LR aircraft.

Footnotes

  1. Data sources + data used in this post.

Sorry, No Hotels Available. The Cities With The Fewest Hotels

When a big event rolls into town, many cities can struggle to cope with the demand for hotel rooms.

Airbnb and other holiday rental sites have alleviated such problems, although in many cases prices can be significantly higher than normal for guests.

Which cities have the fewest number of hotels for visiting tourists?

Methodology

I used Euromonitor’s Top 100 City Destinations Ranking (tourist arrivals) to identify the top 100 cities for tourism in 2015.

Using this list of 100, I then turned to Tripadvisor to identify number of accommodation options in each city. Tripadvisor splits accommodation options into 4 types:

  • Hotels
  • B&B and Inns
  • Speciality Lodging
  • Holiday Rentals

Note, the “holiday rental” category does not include rentals from popular sites like Airbnb and other equivalents which will result in a lower number reported for this category than is correct.

Results

Top 10 Destinations by Tourist Arrivals (2015)

Rank 2015 Arrivals City Country 2014 Arrivals (‘000) 2015 Arrivals (‘000) Y-o-YGrowth 2014-2015
1 Hong Kong Hong Kong, China 27,770.50 26,686.00 3.91%
2 Bangkok Thailand 17,031.70 18,734.90 -10.00%
3 London UK 17,404.00 18,580.00 -6.76%
4 Singapore Singapore 16,795.60 16,869.40 -0.44%
5 Paris France 15,058.10 15,023.00 0.23%
6 Macau Macau 14,566.00 14,308.50 1.77%
7 Dubai United Arab Emirates 13,200.00 14,200.00 -7.58%
8 Istanbul Turkey 11,843.00 12,414.60 -4.83%
9 New York City US 12,230.00 12,300.00 -0.57%
10 Kuala Lumpur Malaysia 11,629.60 12,153.00 -4.50%

Full table.

Hong Kong welcomed 28 million tourists in 2015, 10 million more than the second touristed city, Bangkok (17 million). It also saw the fastest growth (4%) for arrivals in 2015 (top 10 only). Jerba, Tunisia saw the biggest increase in tourists (top 100) (17%), whilst Osaka, Japan saw the biggest decrease in tourist arrivals (top 100) (-52%).

Top 100 Destinations by Tourist Arrivals (2015)

Histogram-of-2015-Tourist-Arrivals-000

Download chart.

To put things into perspective, while all cities in the top 10 received more than 10 million arrivals the majority of cities received less than 5 million (67).

Map-2015-Tourist-Arrivals-000

Interactive map.

The top destinations in the top 100 fall primarily in Europe and Asia.

Top 10 cities by number of accommodation options

Rank Accommodation count City Country count Hotels count B&B count Specialty Lodging count Holiday Rentals total accommodation
1 Orlando US 335 2 17 15,796 16150
2 Rome Italy 1291 3763 1097 8549 14700
3 London UK 1088 574 837 7,654 10153
4 Beijing China 6449 1292 925 44 8710
5 Paris France 1801 129 157 6,265 8352
6 Shanghai China 4999 728 292 62 6081
7 Mugla Turkey 1238 912 954 2,792 5896
8 Mexico City Mexico 1691 1796 1299 964 5750
9 Phuket Thailand 754 997 849 3064 5664
10 Barcelona Spain 521 326 764 3,984 5595

Full list.

Orlando does not have the most hotels (Beijing does, 6449) but it does have the highest number of accommodation options, 16150 in total (most of which are classified as holiday rentals by TripAdvisor).

The top 4 cities with the most hotels are all in China: Beijing (6449), Shanghai (4999), Guangzhou (3394), Shenzhen (2754).

World largest hotels by rooms

Rank Name Country City Rooms/suites
1 First World Hotel Malaysia Genting Highlands 7,351
2 The Venetian and The Palazzo United States Las Vegas 7,117
3 MGM Grand Las Vegas + The Signature United States Las Vegas 6,852
4 CityCenter United States Las Vegas 6,790
5 Sands Cotai Central Macau Macau 6,000
6 Izmailovo Hotel Russia Moscow 5,000
7 Wynn Las Vegas + Encore Las Vegas United States Las Vegas 4,750
8 Mandalay Bay + Delano + Four Seasons United States Las Vegas 4,426
9 Luxor Las Vegas United States Las Vegas 4,407
10 Ambassador City Jomtien Thailand Pattaya 4,219

Full list.

The First World Hotel in Malaysia holds the crown for the largest hotel by number of rooms (7351). 6 of the top 10 largest hotels by number of rooms can be found in Las Vegas.

Fewest accommodation options per tourist

Arrivals / accom rank City Country Accommodation options total Arrivals 2015 total Arrivals per accom
1 Macau Macau 110 14,308,500 130,077
2 Edirne Turkey 58 3,190,400 55,007
3 Pulau Pinang Malaysia 53 2,774,500 52,349
4 Burgas Bulgaria 97 2,842,800 29,307
5 Manama Bahrain 234 6,413,200 27,407
6 Hong Kong Hong Kong, China 1469 26,686,000 18,166
7 Singapore Singapore 963 16,869,400 17,518
8 Doha Qatar 169 2,930,000 17,337
9 Antalya Turkey 749 10,868,700 14,511
10 Mecca Saudi Arabia 516 7,175,200 13,905

Full list.

As an average figure, each accommodation option (hotel, B&B, etc) in Macau must serve 130,077 tourists over a year. Assuming each stays for an average of 7 days and the majority of those bookings are 1 room for 2 people, that means there must at least 1,251 rooms at each accommodation option ((130077/2)/52), assuming maximum efficiency. After further research, I found official figures (2015) that stated there are 29,725 rooms spread across 73 hotels in Macau (note, the above calculation factors in other accommodation options – not just hotels).

Compare that to Orlando, ranked 100 for arrivals / accommodation, where there is 1 accommodation option to every 309 tourists. Tourists have significantly more choice here.

Improvements

I used number of accommodation options, not rooms for these calculations. Cities like Macau and Las Vegas tend to have “mega-hotels” of 3000+ rooms each. It would be more accurate to calculate scarcity of hotel rooms against tourists, as opposed to individual hotels (and other accommodation options) as has been used in this post.

As discussed in the Methodology section of this post, the data does not include rentals from popular sites like Airbnb and other equivalents resulting in a lower numbers reported for this category than actually available. If it was possible to get an accurate count of these rentals this would improve my current workings.

tl;dr

Each hotel (and other accommodation type) must serve 130,077 tourists in Macau.

Get the Data

Get all the data used in this blog post on Google Sheets.

Cairo, the Cheapest City to Live in 2017

I’m always looking for new places to call home. Cost of living is an important consideration.

Having lived in London, Hong Kong and San Francisco I know how disheartening it is to watch a significant portion of income go on rent — especially when friends from other cities wonder why anyone would ever pay $3000 a month in rent.

When travelling on business or vacation the cost of living variations can be even more astounding. According to Nomadlist (Feb 2017) you can live comfortably $600 a month in Chaing Mai, Thailand.

How has cost of living changed over the last few years around the world? Are there any cities you can live cheaply and comfortably, without being cut off from the outside world?

Methodology

I pulled data from Numbeo’s Cost of Living rankings, starting 2009. Numbeo collates data on cost of living – down to the cost of milk – from cities around the world. They also collate datasets for other localised metrics including property prices and air quality.

The index uses New York as the index value (New York = 100). The index values therefore represent changes in cost of living against the current cost of living in New York. I used a subset of Numbeo’s Cost of Living rankings using cities that only had data for every year from 2017 to 2011. The Cost of Living index does not account for rental costs.

Results

Most expensive cities 2017

2017 Top 10 Most Expensive (rank changes 2011 - 2017)

Download chart.

You can see there has been some movement into the top 10 in recent years — most notably Reykjavik, New York, Seattle and San Francisco all becoming more expensive.

Rekyavik has gone from 42nd to 4th most expensive in just over 5 years. Similarly, San Francisco has moved from 57th to 8th over the same period for cost of living ranking.

Most expensive cities 2011 vs. 2017

City Country 2017 rank 2016 – 2017 2011 – 2017
Geneva, Switzerland 1 3.72 -10.92
Zurich, Switzerland 2 -0.95 -13.89
Stavanger, Norway 3 5.28 -33.36
Reykjavik, Iceland 4 14.6 18.28
Oslo, Norway 5 10.95 -42.33
Bergen, Norway 6 1.78 -38.06
New York, NY, United States 7 0 0.00
San Francisco, CA, United States 8 -4.22 11.06
Tokyo, Japan 9 5.88 -9.06
Seattle, WA, United States 10 7.32 -3.19

Full list.

In real terms, 7 of the 10 cities (in the top 10) have seen cost of living fall vs. New York in the period 2011 to 2017. In Oslo it has fallen by over 42 points! Only San Francisco and Reykjavik increased in price by over 11 and 18 points respectively over the 7 year period.

Between 2016 and 2017 cost of living actually decreased vs. New York. Oslo, whilst seeing the biggest drop between 2011 – 2017 of 42 points, saw a large increase of cost of living between 2016 – 2017 of 11 points.

Cheapest cities 2017

2017 Top 10 cheapest rank changes 2011 2017

Download chart.

Overall, the cheapest cities have remained fairly static over the years — up until 2017 Indian cities were at the bottom list (until Cairo in 2017).

Over the last few year Cairo has seen a turbulent change in cost of living compared to New York. It finds itself at the bottom of our list (144th) comparing 2017 to 2011.

Most notably, Baku in Azerbaijan has seen a massive fall in cost of living compared to New York falling from 83rd in 2015 to 136th / 144 in 2017.

Cheapest cities 2011 vs 2017

City Country 2017 rank 2016 – 2017 2011 – 2017
Delhi, India 135 0.45 -7.63
Baku, Azerbaijan 136 -2.12 -38.72
Kiev, Ukraine 137 -2.05 -22.7
Pune, India 138 0.65 -1.84
Bangalore, India 139 1.16 -5.89
Chennai, India 140 1.98 -4.46
Kolkata, India 141 1.73 -5.9
Ahmedabad, India 142 3.26 -11.07
Hyderabad, India 143 0 -7.98
Cairo, Egypt 144 -14.97 -28.56

Full list.

In real terms between 2011 and 2017 cost of living in Baku, Azerbaijan has fallen by just short of 39 points compared to New York (most of this change happened in 2015). Cairo saw the largest drop in index value between 2016 and 2017, by -15 points.

Biggest changes in cost of living vs New York

City Country 2017 rank 2016 – 2017 2011 – 2017
Perth, Australia 15 0.65 -44.42
Oslo, Norway 5 10.95 -42.33
Turin, Italy 70 -3.11 -40.49
Baku, Azerbaijan 136 -2.12 -38.72
Dublin, Ireland 33 -0.62 -38.48
Bergen, Norway 6 1.78 -38.06
Vienna, Austria 65 2.72 -37.33
Brasilia, Brazil 80 15.37 -37.26
Amsterdam, Netherlands 35 1.72 -36.19
Copenhagen, Denmark 12 -1.32 -35.91

Full list.

Whilst Baku has seen a significant drop in cost of living versus New York, some of the most expensive cities have seen the biggest drops in cost of living between 2011 – 2017 — showing just how expensive they once were! In Perth, Oslo and Turin index values have all dropped by over 40 points. Many non-US cities have all seen drops in cost of living vs New York.

Improvements

Numbeo only provides index values for each of the cities against a New York baseline. It would be good to compare actual cost of living rather than just index values to make the numbers more quantifiable.

tl;dr

Cairo, Egypt is a major city with one of the lowest costs of living.

Footnotes

  1. Data sources + data used in this post.

In Madagascar Tourists Spend Over 10 Times The Countries Average Income

In most cities and top tourist destinations areas have emerged selling variety of wares to tourists.

A boom in tourism can change the fate of local populations.

Chinese travellers spent a record $165 billion USD abroad in 2014 – an exceptional 27% increase over 2013 ($36 billion USD). Second are US travellers who spent a total of $111 billion USD abroad in 2014.

Which countries benefit the most from tourist spending?

Methodology

Every year the UN World Tourism Organisation publishes a report titled “Tourism Highlights“. For this post I used the 2015 version (data reported is for 2013). The report contains tourism statistics for 217 countries, including inbound tourist arrivals and receipts.

In 2013 Gallup posted data on median incomes for countries which I used to compare against tourism receipts.

Similarly, the World Bank publishes yearly data on GDP by country (I used data from 2014).

Analysis

Receipts total per tourist

revenue per tourist usd map

Full size map.

Some countries, as expected, make very little per tourist. Take the Democratic Republic of Congo which earns on average $5.24 USD per international tourist. Others, strangely, make a very large amount per tourist. International tourists in Belarus, using UNWTO figures, spend over $5,700 USD each during their trip!

Did you know? The countries that earn the most per international tourist are: 1. Belarus ($5,773 USD), 2. Luxembourg ($5,131 USD), 3. Australia ($4,897 USD).

Did you know? The countries that earn the least per international tourist are: 168. Lesotho ($121.88 USD), 169. Swaziland ($13.43 USD), 170. Democratic Republic of Congo ($5.24 USD).

Full rankings.

Yearly incomes

median per capita income worldwide usd map

Full size map.

Did you know? The countries with the highest median salaries per capita are: 1. Norway ($19,308 USD), 2. Sweden ($18,632 USD), 3. Luxembourg ($18,418 USD).

Did you know? The countries with the lowest median salaries per capita are: 128. Mali ($165 USD), 129. Burundi ($129 USD), 130. Liberia ($118 USD).

Full rankings.

Income vs. tourist receipts

median income per capita income per tourist

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Most countries (83) have higher median salaries compared to the average a tourist would spend in the country, unsurprisingly. However, in 31 countries receipts per tourist actually exceed median incomes. In 7 of these 31 countries receipts per tourist exceed median income per capita by over $1,000 USD, and 2 by over $2,000 USD (India and Madagascar).

10 countries with biggest difference in median income and tourist revenue

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rank Destination Revenue p/tourist (USD) Median Income p/Capita (USD) Median Income – Tourist revenue (USD) Per Tourist Revenue as % of Median Income
1 Madagascar 2,928.57 205 (2,723.57) 1428.57%
2 Mali 1,253.52 165 (1,088.52) 759.71%
3 Tanzania 1,768.58 384 (1,384.58) 460.57%
4 India 2,640.21 616 (2,024.21) 428.61%
5 Burkina Faso 701.83 168 (533.83) 417.76%
6 Benin 818.18 237 (581.18) 345.22%
7 Uganda 978.44 296 (682.44) 330.55%
8 Sierra Leone 728.40 233 (495.40) 312.62%
9 Angola 1,898.46 720 (1,178.46) 263.68%
10 Yemen, Rep. 949.49 400 (549.49) 237.37%

Full table.

Madagascar receives a staggering 1428.57% more from tourists than the median income of its residents — in dollar terms a difference of $2,732.57 USD.

GDP figures

gdp per capita map

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Did you know? The countries with the highest GDP per capita are: 1. Luxembourg ($113,727 USD), 2. Norway ($102,832 USD), 3. Qatar ($96,077 USD)

Did you know? The countries with the lowest GDP per capita are: 185. Central African Republic ($326 USD), 186. Burundi ($259 USD), 187. Malawi ($240 USD).

Full rankings.

GDP vs. tourist receipts

gdp per capita income per tourist

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As with income, most countries have a positive difference between GDP per capita and income per tourist. However, 10 countries have a negative difference — that is, tourists spend more than the countries GDP per capita.

10 countries with biggest difference in gdp and tourist revenue

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rank Destination Revenue p/tourist (USD) GDP p/Capita (USD) GDP – Tourist revenue (USD) Per tourist Revenue as % of GDP
1 Madagascar 2,928.57 462.97 (2,465.60) 632.56%
2 Tanzania 1,768.58 910.38 (858.20) 194.27%
3 Mali 1,253.52 659.52 (594.00) 190.07%
4 India 2,640.21 1,455.10 (1,185.11) 181.45%
5 Ethiopia 911.89 503.90 (407.99) 180.97%
6 Haiti 1,352.38 810.33 (542.05) 166.89%
7 Uganda 978.44 674.34 (304.10) 145.10%
8 Solomon Islands 2,541.67 1,889.99 (651.67) 134.48%
9 Niger 471.54 418.49 (53.05) 112.68%
10 Moldova 2,354.17 2,243.98 (110.19) 104.91%

Full table.

These are the 10 countries that receive more per tourist than their GDP per capita. Comparing tourism revenue as a percentage of GDP per capita Madagascar comes out with a difference of 632.56%!

Improvements

I realise that using median income against tourism receipts is not a truly representative metric. Many countries have significant poverty and large gaps between incomes, all of which would be hugely beneficial context to add into the comparison.

tl;dr

In 2013, Madagascar welcomed 198,000 tourists who spent on average $2,928.57 USD each. That’s 633% more than their GDP per capita and 1429% more than the median income of their residents.

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  1. Data sources + data used in this post.

Passport Power Rank 2017

Wow. What a year it has been since we put together the 2016 version of our Passport Power Rank.

The UK left the EU, potentially losing visa-free travel privileges within the area (and the distinctive red passport).

America voted in Donald Trump who swiftly tried to bring in a ridiculous travel ban, build a wall, …. I could go on.

How have these events effected a citizen’s ability to travel visa-free? Here is the 2017 version of our Passport Power Rank.

Methodology

Each year Henley & Partners publishes a “Visa Restriction Index”, a global ranking of countries according to the travel freedom that their citizens enjoy.

Points are awarded to countries for the number of destinations that offer visa-free travel to their citizens. e-Visas are treated the same as visas on arrival. Where the conditions for obtaining an e-visa are straightforward (fee, return ticket, hotel reservation), a visa-free point was assigned.

There are 218 destination countries (territories) in total. The maximum attainable score is 219 (points are not assigned for a national traveling to their own country).

Analysis

Best and worst passports for travel

Country-visa-free-count-2017-map

Full-size map.

 Rank 2017 Country Visa free destinations 2017
1 Germany 176
2 Sweden 175
3 Italy 174
3 Spain 174
3 Finland 174
3 United States 174
3 Denmark 174
8 France 173
8 United Kingdom 173
8 Belgium 173
8 Netherlands 173
8 Singapore 173
8 Austria 173
8 Norway 173
8 Luxembourg 173

 Rank 2017 Country Visa free destinations 2017
185 Lebanon 37
185 South Sudan 37
185 Kosovo 37
185 Sudan 37
185 Ethiopia 37
190 Palestine, State of 36
190 Nepal 36
192 Yemen 35
192 Eritrea 35
194 Libya 33
195 Somalia 30
196 Syrian Arab Republic 29
197 Pakistan 28
198 Iraq 27
199 Afghanistan 24

Full rankings.

Germany tops the list for a fourth year in a row with 176 destinations accessible without a visa for passport holders (out of a possible 219). Down one from 2016.

Interestingly, various EU Member States have varying visa free travel to non-EU countries.

Syria, Pakistan, Iraq and Afghanistan prop up the table, each with visa-free access to fewer than 30 countries.

Year-on-year changes

Total of Visa Free Relationships by Year 2013 - 2017

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Visa-free travel between countries increased again between 2016 and 2017 – albeit at a much slower rate then 2015 and 2016 – by 55 extra visa-free destinations in total.

2016-2017 change in visa-free destinations count

86 passports had visa-free travel increased, 70 decreased, and 43 had no change at all.

Biggest visa restriction changes in 2017

Change in visa free destinations (top 8 2017)

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The biggest mover was Marshall Islands which gained an additional 33 destinations its holders can travel to without the requiring a visa. Peru (+32 visa-free destinations), Micronesia (+31), Soloman Islands (+30), Kiribati (+30) and Tuvalu were the other signifiant movers.

At the other end of the scale was Jordan (-4), Ghana (-5) and Dijibouti (-5) had the amount of countries they could travel to without needing a travel visa decrease. Notably, India (-3), Hong Kong (-2), UK (-2) and France (-2) also saw visa-free travel privileges decrease. Perhaps a sign of things to come for the UK since Brexit.

Improvements

Visa restrictions can change for a wide variety of reasons: security, political, social, etc. For additional studies it would be to add such context for each country to try and better understand why visa requirements seem to change so frequently.

tl;dr

The German passport is the most powerful allowing visa-free travel to 176 countries. In contrast, Afghani’s can only travel to 24 countries without a visa.

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  1. Data sources + data used in this post.

China Earns 8 billion USD Each Year From Visas

The American Passport has some of the fewest foreign travel visa requirements for holders (ranked 8th for freedom of movement in 2016).

Many countries still require inbound tourist to pay for a visa for reasons from political agreements (or disagreements) to economic drivers. In some cases, transit visas are required if you’re only transiting through an airport within a country.

What country is the most expensive for tourist visas? What country earns the most from tourists?

Methodology

VisaHQ provides a service to help travellers apply for tourism visas online. Their database contains costs charged by each countries embassy for issuing travel visas to American citizens.

For this post I only considered the Embassy fee, ignoring any additional costs. As each country offers visas of differing lengths (days), conditions (number of entries allowed), and Embassy processing speeds, I used the cheapest visa provided for each country.

Visa costs and availability are always subject to change. Data was collected from VisaHQ during April 2017.

I calculated potential visa revenue using visa costs to US tourists against all inbound tourists of all nationalities in 2013 from a UNWTO report (“US visa cost” X “inbound tourists”).

Results

Most expensive tourist visas for Americans by county

cost-of-visa-for-american-600

Full-size map.

Rank (cost) Country alpha-3 region Embassy fee USD
1 Nigeria NGA Africa 265
2 Cook Islands COK Oceania 200
3 Pakistan PAK Asia 192
4 Congo Republic COD Africa 175
5 Afghanistan AFG Asia 160
5 Algeria DZA Africa 160
5 Bangladesh BGD Asia 160
5 Bolivia BTN Asia 160
5 Brazil BRA Americas 160
5 Gabon GAB Africa 160
5 Guinea GIN Africa 160
5 Mozambique MOZ Africa 160
5 Paraguay PRY Americas 160
5 Qatar QAT Asia 160
5 Sierra Leone SLE Africa 160
5 South Sudan SSD Africa 160
5 Uzbekistan UZB Asia 160

Full list.

Nigeria is the most expensive country for a tourist visa — $265 USD gets you a multiple-entry visa (leave and return as many times as desired) valid for 2 years.

The top 5 most expensive countries for tourist visas for American visitors spans 17 countries. 8 in this list are African nations, 6 Asian, 2 Americas, and 1 Oceanic. In total American citizens are required to pay for tourist visas to enter 89 countries.

Entry into the EU is completely free for US passport holders. In total US citizens can travel to 142 countries without having to pay for a tourist visa.

Potential visa revenue by country

Country Embassy fee USD International tourist arrivals (1000) Potential visa revenue USD
China 140 55686 7,796,040,000
Russia 123 28356 3,487,788,000
Saudi Arabia 107 13380 1,431,660,000
Brazil 160 5813 930,080,000
Turkey 20 37795 755,900,000
India 77 6968 535,839,200
Algeria 160 2733 437,280,000
Iran 90 4769 429,210,000
Qatar 160 2611 417,760,000
Uzbekistan 160 1969 315,040,000

Full list.

China could potentially earn almost $8 billion USD from inbound tourist visas (56 million tourists paying $140 USD a each). Russia and Saudi Arabia also stand to raise billions from tourist visas, $3.5 billions USD and $1.5 billion USD a piece.

121 countries raise no revenue from tourist visas (or equivalent visa-free entry) issued to Americans.

Improvements

I calculated potential visa revenue using visa costs to US tourists against all inbound tourists of all nationalities in 2013 (“US visa cost” X “inbound tourists”). Clearly this is incorrect. Many inbound tourists of other nationalities will likely be subject to different visa requirements and costs when compared to US citizens. If I could get a breakdown of visa costs and inbound tourists by nationality the accuracy of this calculation could be significantly improved.

tl;dr

In total American citizens are required to pay for tourist visas to enter 89 countries. Nigeria charges Americans the most for a tourist visa, $265. China could potentially earn $8 billion from inbound arrivals (assuming all visitors were tourists and required to pay the same visa costs as Americans).

Get the Data

Get all the data used in this blog post on Google Sheets.

Safest Cities 2017

Some cities are incredibly dangerous. In Caracas, Venezuela about 1.3 people were murdered per 1,000 in 2016 (almost 12 per day)! Though in certain cities I’ve lived, 12 homicides a year would be considered high.

Murders are only one variable in determining how “safe” a city is. Other serious crimes also play a determining factor.

In a more positive take on our “Most Dangerous Cities 2017” post, I wanted to uncover where the safest cities on earth were.

Methodology

I used Numbeo’s Safe City Index for analysis.

Numbeo surveys visitors to their website about city crime to produce their Safe City Index. Questions for their surveys are similar to many similar scientific and government surveys. They use their own data due to inconsistencies with government reporting of crime data worldwide.

The Safe City Index is an estimation of overall level of crime in a given city. If the city has a high Safe City index, it is considered very safe (low crime). The maximum attainable index value is 100.

Results

Top 10 Safest Cities 2017

Top 10 Safest cities 2017 (Numbeo Safety Index)

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Rank City Continent Safety Index
1 Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates Asia 84.49
2 Munich, Germany Europe 84.28
3 Taipei, Taiwan Asia 84.24
4 Basel, Switzerland Europe 84.18
5 Arhus, Denmark Europe 83.99
6 Heidelberg, Germany Europe 83.64
7 Doha, Qatar Asia 83.43
8 Singapore, Singapore Asia 83.42
9 Mangalore, India Asia 82.49
10 Zurich, Switzerland Europe 81.86
369 Rio De Janeiro, Brazil Americas 22.13
370 Pretoria, South Africa Africa 22.01
371 Recife, Brazil Americas 22
372 Johannesburg, South Africa Africa 21.51
373 Durban, South Africa Africa 21.42
374 Selangor, Malaysia Asia 21.1
375 Fortaleza, Brazil Americas 16.1
376 Pietermaritzburg, South Africa Africa 15.77
377 San Pedro Sula, Honduras Americas 14.41
378 Caracas, Venezuela Oceania 13.39

Full list (378 total).

In the 2017 Numbeo Safe City index, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates ranks 1st. All of the top 10 have an index value of 80 points and above (out of a maximum of 100).

Caracas, Venezuela ranks last for safety with an index value of 13.39 points. It’s not surprising with about 1.3 people murdered per 1,000 people in 2016 (see our dangerous cities 2017 post)!

Safest cities 2017 (Numbeo Safety Index) histogram

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The median index value is 55.82 points. The mean index value is 56.08 points.

Safest Regions 2017

Top-10-Safest-Continents-2017-Numbeo-Safety-Index

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Region Mean Average Safe City Index Value 2017 Count of cities considered
Europe 59.40 164
Asia 58.92 112
Oceania 55.66 16
Africa 50.31 42
Americas 40.62 42
376

Full list.

It’s a close run battle for the safest region with 0.48 index points the difference between 1st and 2nd, Europe and Asia respectively. Cities within North and South America (Americas) have the lowest average index points (40.62 points) — almost 10 points lower than Africa).

Changes in safety 2012 – 2017

Change in safety index value 2017 - 2012 histogram

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I analysed 126 cities that had Numbeo Safe City Index data spanning 2012 – 2017. Of these 126 cities, 72 are safer than in 2012, 54 are more dangerous.

City 2012 2017 2017 – 2012 pc dif 2017 rank (/376) 2012 – 2017 change rank
Gurgaon, India 15.89 37.54 136.25% 326 1
Beijing, China 32.99 58.35 76.87% 173 2
Kolkata, India 27.97 48.89 74.79% 259 3
Geneva, Switzerland 42.19 72.52 71.89% 72 4
Monterrey, Mexico 29.17 49.33 69.11% 252 5
Johannesburg, South Africa 13.04 21.51 64.95% 372 6
Vienna, Austria 48.18 78.19 62.29% 32 7
Mexico City, Mexico 20.94 33.9 61.89% 343 8
Boston, MA, United States 40.62 64.25 58.17% 128 9
Miami, FL, United States 30.73 46.11 50.05% 276 10
Ankara, Turkey 79.38 57.15 -28.00% 179 117
Cairo, Egypt 61.33 44.09 -28.11% 293 118
Amman, Jordan 77.21 55.2 -28.51% 199 119
Rio De Janeiro, Brazil 32.92 22.13 -32.78% 369 120
Delhi, India 58.75 39.21 -33.26% 315 121
Chicago, IL, United States 52.58 34.61 -34.18% 341 122
Oslo, Norway 82.03 51.2 -37.58% 237 123
Curitiba, Brazil 57.71 34.84 -39.93% 338 124
Atlanta, GA, United States 59.38 35.19 -40.74% 336 125
Bogota, Colombia 62.5 36.36 -41.82% 328 126

Full list (126 total).

Most improved cities for safety 2012 - 2017

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Gurgaon, India has improved by Safe City index value between 2012 and 2017 (+136.25%). The city now ranks 326 out of 376 cities in 2017 with a Safe City index value of 37.54.

Top 10 cities becoming more dangerous 2012 - 2017

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At the other end of the scale Bogota, Colombia, saw its Safe City index value drop by a massive -41.82%. The city had a Safe City index value of 62.5 in 2012, in 2014 it had fallen to 44.31. It now stands at a value of 36.36 points, ranking 328 / 376 in 2017 (only slightly more dangerous than Gurgaon, India, the most improved city).

Improvements

Using index values from a respected survey provides an aggregated view of safety. In out “Most Dangerous Cities 2017” post we considered actual murder rates to judge danger. The analysis of this post could be improved – or at least offer more insight – if we considered actual crime statistics for each city.

tl;dr

The world’s safest city in 2017 is Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates.

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  1. Data sources + data used in this post.

Most Dangerous Cities 2017

More people than ever are migrating to the worlds largest cities for work and play.

However, as the population of urban areas increase it often brings with it an increase in violent crime, exacerbated by high population density and limited law enforcement.

Where are the worlds most dangerous cities?

Methodology

I used a list of the 50 most dangerous cities (by murder rate) curated on Wikipedia. The data reported is from 2016. Figures include both homicide rate and population by city.

Top 10 most dangerous cities by murder rate

Top 10 most dangerous cities by murder rate (2016)

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Homicide danger rank Municipality, Country Continent Homicides 2016 Homicides per 1,000 % Population Killed year
1 Caracas, Venezuela South America 4,308 1.3035 0.13%
2 Acapulco, Mexico North America 918 1.1324 0.11%
3 San Pedro Sula, Honduras North America 845 1.1209 0.11%
4 Distrito Central, Honduras North America 1,027 0.8509 0.09%
5 Ciudad Victoria, Mexico North America 293 0.8467 0.08%
6 MaturĂ­n, Venezuela South America 499 0.8421 0.08%
7 San Salvador, El Salvador North America 1,483 0.8339 0.08%
8 Ciudad Guayana, Venezuela South America 727 0.8284 0.08%
9 Valencia, Venezuela South America 1,124 0.7202 0.07%
10 Natal, Brazil South America 1,097 0.6956 0.07%

Full list.

Caracas, Venezuela tops the list of the most dangerous cities with about 1.3 people murdered per 1,000 people (almost 12 homicides per day). Looking at it another way, 0.13% of the population of Caracas is murdered every year.

Acapulco, Mexico (1.13 p/1,000) and San Pedro Sula, Honduras (1.2 p/1,000) are 2nd and 3rd respectively for number of homicides. The top three cities all have a probability of being murdered greater than 1 in 1000!

Homicide-rate-per-10k-for-top-50-most-dangerous-cities-2016

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To put this into perspective, Durban, South Africa, which ranks number 50th for homicides has a murder rate of 0.34 people murdered per 1,000 people (equivalent to 34.4 people per 100,000). Whilst still worryingly high, especially for tourists, it is nowhere near the murder rate of the top 3!

The eagle-eyed readers might have also noticed the top 10 most dangerous cities are all found in either North or South America. No Asian, Oceanic or European cities make the list.

Most dangerous countries

Most-dangerous-cities-2016-count-of-cities-in-top-50-most-dangerous

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Country Count of cities in top 50 Total homicides 2016
Brazil 19 16123
Venezuela 7 8106
South Africa 3 4190
Mexico 8 3905
Colombia 4 1950
Honduras 2 1872
Guatemala 1 1596
El Salvador 1 1483
United States 4 984
Jamaica 1 545

Full list.

Brazilian cities are deadly! 19 of the top 50 cities by homicide rate are all found in Brazil and account for a total of 16,123 murders (that’s just over 44 per day). Another surprise, for me anyway, was that the United States comes in 4th on the list.

Most dangerous continents

Most-dangerous-continents-2016-count-of-cities-in-top-50-most-dangerous

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Continent Count of cities in top 50 2016 Total homicides 2016
South America 30 26179
North America 17 10385
Africa 3 4190

Full table.

South American cities make up 30 cities of the top 50. Again, it is important to stress that 19 of these are Brazilian. Brazil would top this list if it was considered on its own. In South America there was 26,179 homicides from just 30 cities in 2016!

Improvements

I’d love to do a more positive post on the safest cities with fewest homicides (watch your inboxes, subscribers). This analysis would be very interesting to compare to the top 50 most dangerous cities to get an idea of the difference between best and worst cities.

Context is essential to understanding homicide rates. If it was possible to aggregate the data associated with each one of these deaths (from police reports, for example) we could examine the causes of high murder rates.

tl;dr

Caracas, Venezuela tops the list of the most dangerous cities with about 1.3 people murdered per 1,000 people in 2016. Looking at it another way, 0.13% of the population of Caracas was murdered in 2016.

Get the data

  1. Data sources + data used in this post.